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SHR Neuro Cancer Cardio Lipid Metab Microb

Okutan, B; Schwarze, UY; Berger, L; Martinez, DC; Herber, V; Suljevic, O; Plocinski, T; Swieszkowski, W; Santos, SG; Schindl, R; Löffler, JF; Weinberg, AM; Sommer, NG.
The combined effect of zinc and calcium on the biodegradation of ultrahigh-purity magnesium implants.
Biomater Adv. 2023; 146:213287 Doi: 10.1016/j.bioadv.2023.213287
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Leading authors Med Uni Graz
Sommer Nicole
Co-authors Med Uni Graz
Herber Valentin
Schindl Rainer
Schwarze Uwe Yacine
Suljevic Omer
Weinberg Annelie-Martina

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Magnesium (Mg)-based implants are promising candidates for orthopedic interventions, because of their biocompatibility, good mechanical features, and ability to degrade completely in the body, eliminating the need for an additional removal surgery. In the present study, we synthesized and investigated two Mg-based materials, ultrahigh-purity ZX00 (Mg-Zn-Ca; <0.5 wt% Zn and <0.5 wt% Ca, in wt%; Fe-content <1 ppm) and ultrahigh-purity Mg (XHP-Mg, >99.999 wt% Mg; Fe-content <1 ppm), in vitro and in vivo in juvenile healthy rats to clarify the effect of the alloying elements Zn and Ca on mechanical properties, microstructure, cytocompatibility and degradation rate. Potential differences in bone formation and bone in-growth were also assessed and compared with state-of-the-art non-degradable titanium (Ti)-implanted, sham-operated, and control (non-intervention) groups, using micro-computed tomography, histology and scanning electron microscopy. At 6 and 24 weeks after implantation, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium (Ca), and Mg level were measured and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were isolated for real-time PCR analysis. Results show that ZX00 implants have smaller grain size and superior mechanical properties than XHP-Mg, and that both reveal good biocompatibility in cytocompatibilty tests. ZX00 homogenously degraded with an increased gas accumulation 12 and 24 weeks after implantation, whereas XHP-Mg exhibited higher gas accumulation already at 2 weeks. Serum ALP, Ca, and Mg levels were comparable among all groups and both Mg-based implants led to similar relative expression levels of Alp, Runx2, and Bmp-2 genes at weeks 6 and 24. Histologically, Mg-based implants are superior for new bone tissue formation and bone in-growth compared to Ti implants. Furthermore, by tracking the sequence of multicolor fluorochrome labels, we observed higher mineral apposition rate at week 2 in both Mg-based implants compared to the control groups. Our findings suggest that (i) ZX00 and XHP-Mg support bone formation and remodeling, (ii) both Mg-based implants are superior to Ti implants in terms of new bone tissue formation and osseointegration, and (iii) ZX00 is more favorable due to its lower degradation rate and moderate gas accumulation.

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