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Haindl, MT; Köck, U; Zeitelhofer-Adzemovic, M; Fazekas, F; Hochmeister, S.
The formation of a glial scar does not prohibit remyelination in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.
Glia. 2019; 67(3):467-481 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Authors Med Uni Graz:
Fazekas Franz
Haindl Michaela
Hochmeister Sonja
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Abstract:
The role of astrocytes in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis (MS) is discussed controversially. Especially the formation of the glial scar is often believed to act as a barrier for remyelination. At the same time, astrocytes are known to produce factors that influence oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) survival. To explore these mechanisms, we investigated the astrocytic reaction in an animal model induced by immunization with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in Dark Agouti (DA) rats, which mimics most of the histological features of MS. We correlated the astroglial reaction by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) to the remyelination capacity by in situ hybridization for mRNA of proteolipid protein (PLP), indicative of OPCs, over the full course of the disease. PLP mRNA peaked in early remyelinating lesions while the amount of GFAP positive astrocytes was highest in remyelinated lesions. In shadow plaques, we found at the same time all features of a glial scar and numbers of OPCs and mature oligodendrocytes, which were nearly equal to that in unaffected white matter areas. To assess the plaque environment, we furthermore quantitatively analyzed factors expressed by astrocytes previously suggested to influence remyelination. From our data, we conclude that remyelination occurs despite an abundant glial reaction in this animal model. The different patterns of astrocytic factors and the occurrence of different astrocytic phenotypes during lesion evolution furthermore indicate a finely regulated, balanced astrocytic involvement leading to successful repair. © 2018 The Authors. Glia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
astrocytes
glial scar
multiple sclerosis
oligodendrocyte precursor cells
remyelination
shadow plaque
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