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Glatz, M; Means, T; Haas, J; Steere, AC; Müllegger, RR.
Characterization of the early local immune response to Ixodes ricinus tick bites in human skin.
Exp Dermatol. 2017; 26(3):263-269 [OPEN ACCESS]
Web of Science PubMed PUBMED Central FullText FullText_MUG


Authors Med Uni Graz:
Glatz Martin
Haas Josef
Müllegger Robert

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Number of Figures: 4
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Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (<24 hours of tick attachment) were characterized by a predominance of macrophages and dendritic cells, elevated mRNA levels of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4) and neutrophil chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL8), of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-5. In contrast, the numbers of lymphocytes and mRNA levels of lymphocyte cell markers (CD4, CD8, CD19), lymphocyte chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, CCL1, CCL22), dendritic cell chemoattractants (CCL20), and other pro- (IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β) did not differ from normal skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Find related publications in this database (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Adolescent -
Adult -
Aged -
Animals -
Antigens, CD - metabolism
Biopsy -
Bites and Stings - genetics
Bites and Stings - immunology
Bites and Stings - pathology
Case-Control Studies -
Chemokines - genetics
Cytokines - genetics
Dendritic Cells - immunology
Female -
Humans -
Immunity, Cellular -
Immunity, Innate -
Ixodes - immunology
Lymphocytes - immunology
Macrophages - immunology
Male -
Middle Aged -
Neutrophils - immunology
RNA, Messenger - metabolism
Saliva - immunology
Skin - immunology
Skin - pathology
Time Factors -
Young Adult -

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
human skin
immune response
tick bite
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