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Jahn, SW; Kashofer, K; Halbwedl, I; Winter, G; El-Shabrawi-Caelen, L; Mentzel, T; Hoefler, G; Liegl-Atzwanger, B.
Mutational dichotomy in desmoplastic malignant melanoma corroborated by multigene panel analysis.
Mod Pathol. 2015; 28(7):895-903 Doi: 10.1038/modpathol.2015.39 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Leading authors Med Uni Graz
Jahn Stephan
Liegl-Atzwanger Bernadette
Co-authors Med Uni Graz
El-Shabrawi-Caelen Laila
Halbwedl Iris
Höfler Gerald
Kashofer Karl
Winter Gerlinde

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Desmoplastic malignant melanoma is a distinct melanoma entity histologically subtyped into mixed and pure forms due to significantly reduced lymph node metastases in the pure form. Recent reports investigating common actionable driver mutations have demonstrated a lack of BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutation in pure desmoplastic melanoma. In search for alternative driver mutations next generation amplicon sequencing for hotspot mutations in 50 genes cardinal to tumorigenesis was performed and in addition the RET G691S polymorphism was investigated. Data from 21 desmoplastic melanomas (12 pure and 9 mixed) were retrieved. Pure desmoplastic melanomas were either devoid of mutations (50%) or displayed mutations in tumor suppressor genes (TP53, CDKN2A, and SMAD4) singularly or in combination with the exception of a PIK3CA double-mutation lacking established biological relevance. Mixed desmoplastic melanomas on the contrary were frequently mutated (89%), and 67% exhibited activating mutations similar to common-type cutaneous malignant melanomas (BRAF, NRAS, FGFR2, and ERBB2). Separate analysis of morphologically heterogeneous tumor areas in four mixed desmoplastic malignant melanomas displayed no difference in mutation status and RET G691 status. GNAQ and GNA11, two oncogenes in BRAF and NRAS wild-type uveal melanomas, were not mutated in our cohort. The RET G691S polymorphism was found in 25% of pure and 38% of mixed desmoplastic melanomas. Apart from RET G691S our findings demonstrate absence of activating driver mutations in pure desmoplastic melanoma beyond previously investigated oncogenes (BRAF, NRAS, and KIT). The findings underline the therapeutic dichotomy of mixed versus pure desmoplastic melanoma with regard to activating mutations primarily of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
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