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Ailioaie, LM; Ailioaie, C; Litscher, G.
Biomarkers in Systemic Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis, Macrophage Activation Syndrome and Their Importance in COVID Era.
Int J Mol Sci. 2022; 23(21): 12757 Doi: 10.3390/ijms232112757 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Führende Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Litscher Gerhard

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Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and its complication, macrophage activation syndrome (sJIA-MAS), are rare but sometimes very serious or even critical diseases of childhood that can occasionally be characterized by nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms at onset-such as non-remitting high fever, headache, rash, or arthralgia-and are biologically accompanied by an increase in acute-phase reactants. For a correct positive diagnosis, it is necessary to rule out bacterial or viral infections, neoplasia, and other immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Delays in diagnosis will result in late initiation of targeted therapy. A set of biomarkers is useful to distinguish sJIA or sJIA-MAS from similar clinical entities, especially when arthritis is absent. Biomarkers should be accessible to many patients, with convenient production and acquisition prices for pediatric medical laboratories, as well as being easy to determine, having high sensitivity and specificity, and correlating with pathophysiological disease pathways. The aim of this review was to identify the newest and most powerful biomarkers and their synergistic interaction for easy and accurate recognition of sJIA and sJIA-MAS, so as to immediately guide clinicians in correct diagnosis and in predicting disease outcomes, the response to treatment, and the risk of relapses. Biomarkers constitute an exciting field of research, especially due to the heterogeneous nature of cytokine storm syndromes (CSSs) in the COVID era. They must be selected with utmost care-a fact supported by the increasingly improved genetic and pathophysiological comprehension of sJIA, but also of CSS-so that new classification systems may soon be developed to define homogeneous groups of patients, although each with a distinct disease.
Find related publications in this database (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Humans - administration & dosage
Child - administration & dosage
Macrophage Activation Syndrome - diagnosis, drug therapy, etiology
Arthritis, Juvenile - diagnosis, drug therapy
COVID-19 - diagnosis
Biomarkers - administration & dosage

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
cytokine storm syndrome
hub genes
innate immunity
natural killer
S100 proteins
systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis
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