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Moku, G; Vangala, S; Yakati, V; Gali, CC; Saha, S; Madamsetty, VS; Vyas, A.
Novel Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid Analogs Inhibit Angiogenesis and Induce Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells
ANTI-CANCER AGENT ME. 2022; 22(5): 914-925. Doi: 10.2174/1871520621666210901102425
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Co-Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Gali Chaitanya Chakravarthi

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Background: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are the enzymes that catalyze the removal of the acetyl group from lysine residues and regulate several biological processes. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) is a notable HDAC inhibitor that exhibited remarkable anti-proliferative efficiency by alleviating gene regulation against solid and hematologic cancers. Aim: The aim of this study was to develop new chemotherapeutic agents for breast cancer treatment, therefore, a novel series of Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) analogs were investigated as anticancer agents. Methods: We designed and synthesized a novel series of analogs derived from SAHA by substituting alkyl, alkoxy, halo, and benzyl groups at different positions of the phenyl ring. The newly synthesized analogs were assessed for their cytotoxic potential against four human cancer cell lines in comparison with healthy cell lines, using several biological assays. Results: SAHA analogs displayed significant cytotoxic potential with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 19.2 mu M in various tumor cell lines. Among these analogs, 2d (containing 3-chloro, 4-floro substitutions on phenyl moiety), 2h (containing 3,4-di chloro substitutions on phenyl moiety), and 2j (containing 4-chloro, 3-methyl substitutions on phenyl moiety) showed significant cytotoxic potential with IC50 values ranging from 1.6 to 1.8 mu M in MCF-7 (breast carcinoma) cell line. More importantly, these analogs were found to be non-toxic towards healthy primary human hepatocytes (PHH) and mouse fibroblast cells (NIH3T3), which represent their tumor selectivity. These analogs were further analyzed for their effect on cell migration, BrdU incorporation, Annexin V-FITC and cell cycle arrest (Sub-G1 phase). Remarkably, analogs 2d, 2h, and 2j displayed significant HDAC inhibition than the parent SAHA molecule. Further studies also confirmed that these SAHA analogs are efficient in inducing apoptosis, as they regulated the expression of several proteins involved in mitochondrial or intrinsic apoptosis pathways. Findings in the Chick Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) assay studies revealed anti-angiogenic properties of the currently described SAHA analogs. Conclusion: From anti-proliferative study results, it is clearly evident that 3,4-substitution at the SAHA phenyl ring improves the anti-proliferative activity of SAHA. Based onthese findings, we presume that the synthesized novel SAHA analogs could be potential therapeutic agents in treating breast cancer.

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
anti-cancer activity
cell cycle arrest
HDAC inhibitors
SAHA analogs
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