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Mörkl, S; Wagner-Skacel, J; Lahousen, T; Lackner, S; Holasek, SJ; Bengesser, SA; Painold, A; Holl, AK; Reininghaus, E.
The Role of Nutrition and the Gut-Brain Axis in Psychiatry: A Review of the Literature.
Neuropsychobiology. 2018; 143(3):1-9 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Autor/innen der Med Uni Graz:
Bengesser Susanne
Holasek Sandra Johanna
Holl Anna Katharina
Lackner Sonja
Lahousen-Luxenberger Teresa
Mörkl Sabrina
Painold Annamaria
Reininghaus Eva
Wagner-Skacel Jolana
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Abstract:
Individuals suffering from psychiatric disorders experience high levels of illness burden and a significantly reduced quality of life. Despite targeted psychopharmacological strategies and complementary psychotherapeutic procedures only moderate effects are obtained, and the risk of relapse is high in many patients. Worldwide, psychiatric diseases such as depression are continuously increasing, challenging the personal life of the affected as well as their families, but also whole societies by increasing disability, early retirement and hospitalization. According to current scientific knowledge psychiatric disorders are caused by a multifactorial pathogenesis, including genetics, inflammation and neurotransmitter imbalance; furthermore, also lifestyle-associated factors gain rising importance. In line with this, there is growing evidence that the gut microbiota and nutrition have an impact on the onset and course of psychiatric disorders. This narrative review highlights the important role of nutrition in psychiatric care and underlines the significance of nutritional advice in the multifactorial, biopsychosocial treatment of patients. It focuses on current dietary interventions such as the Mediterranean diet, dietary supplements and modifications of the gut microbiota with pre-, pro- and postbiotics. Recent studies support the connection between the quality of diet, gut microbiota and mental health through regulation of metabolic functions, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic properties and the support of neurogenesis. Dietary coaching to improve mental health seems to be an additional, cost-effective, practical, nonpharmacological intervention for individuals with psychiatric disorders. The use of nutritional interventions in psychiatry equips therapists with a promising tool for both the prevention and treatment of psychiatric disorders. Besides pharmacological therapy, psychotherapy and physical activity, nutritional interventions are an important pillar in the multifactorial, biopsychosocial treatment of psychiatric disease and could be used as a potential therapeutic target. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

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