Medizinische Universität Graz Austria/Österreich - Forschungsportal - Medical University of Graz

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Gewählte Publikation:

Regouc, M.
Non-Coding RNAs as novel emerging tumor markers in testicular cancer patients.
Humanmedizin; [ Diplomarbeit ] Graz Medical University; 2020. pp. 58 [OPEN ACCESS]


Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz:
Klec Christiane
Pichler Martin

Testicular cancer is a disease that is becoming more and more important due to the increasing incidence in young men aged 15-35 years worldwide. A variety of tumor entities are described, with germ cell tumors (GCTs) forming the largest group (95%). Histological examination of the testicular tissue after orchiectomy plays an important role alongside patient history, imaging, clinical presentation and laboratory parameters. Surgical procedures and chemotherapeutic treatment provide a 99% chance of cure in the early stages, and advanced testicular tumors are also treatable, unlike other solid tumors. Nonetheless, these procedures are not sufficient to monitor patients and to detect early recurrences. Tumor markers play an important role in testicular cancer, in particular for diagnosis and prognosis estimation and in the follow-up. The common markers are lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), α-fetoprotein (AFP) and the β-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Unfortunately, these tumor markers only have a sensitivity of about 60%, in pure seminoma even lower with about 20%. Therefore, the development of new tumor markers is an important topic. The analysis of epigenetic modification and microRNAs (miRNAs) are the most promising tumor markers in future. miRNAs are small RNAs secreted by testicular tumors that can circulate and be measured in body fluids. In recent years, miRNAs of the miR-371-373 cluster in particular have been identified as potentially superior tumor markers. In this work it could be shown that miR-371a-3p and miR-302/367 clearly differ in the expression patterns between testicular tumors and healthy testicular tissue. These miRNAs significantly exceed the sensitivity and specificity of conventional tumor markers and can facilitate the diagnosis, follow-up, and early detection of recurrences. However, further studies are needed to identify the weaknesses of these tumor markers. The study of additional miRNAs involved in tumorigenesis will play a crucial role in the future.

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