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Schaider, M; Novak, T; Komposch, C; Leis, HJ; Raspotnig, G.
Methyl-ketones in the scent glands of Opiliones: a chemical trait of cyphophthalmi retrieved in the dyspnoan Nemastoma triste.
CHEMOECOLOGY. 2018; 28(2): 61-67. [OPEN ACCESS]
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Autor/innen der Med Uni Graz:
Leis Hans-Jörg

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Number of Figures: 3
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The homologous and phylogenetically old scent glands of harvestmen-also called defensive or repugnatorial glands-represent an ideal system for a model reconstruction of the evolutionary history of exocrine secretion chemistry ("phylogenetic chemosystematics"). While the secretions of Laniatores (mainly phenols, benzoquinones), Cyphophthalmi (naphthoquinones, chloro-naphthoquinones, methyl-ketones) and some Eupnoi (naphthoquinones, ethyl-ketones) are fairly well studied, one open question refers to the still largely enigmatic scent gland chemistry of representatives of the suborder Dyspnoi and the relation of dyspnoan chemistry to the remaining suborders. We here report on the secretion of a nemastomatid Dyspnoi, Nemastoma triste, which is composed of straight-chain methyl-ketones (heptan-2-one, nonan-2-one, 6-tridecen-2-one, 8-tridecen-2-one), methyl-branched methyl-ketones (5-methyl-heptan-2-one, 6-methyl-nonan-2-one), naphthoquinones (1,4-naphthoquinone, 6-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone) and chloro-naphthoquinones (4-chloro-1,2-naphthoquinone, 4-chloro-6-methyl-1,2-naphthoquinone). Chemically, the secretions of N. triste are remarkably reminiscent of those found in Cyphophthalmi. While naphthoquinones are widely distributed across the scent gland secretions of harvestmen (all suborders except Laniatores), methyl-ketones and chloro-naphthoquinones arise as linking elements between cyphophthalmid and dyspnoan scent gland chemistry.

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