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Hermanns, N; Lilly, LC; Mader, JK; Aberer, F; Ribitsch, A; Kojzar, H; Warner, J; Pieber, TR.
Novel simple insulin delivery device reduces barriers to insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes: results from a pilot study.
J Diabetes Sci Technol. 2015; 9(3):581-587 [OPEN ACCESS]
PubMed PUBMED Central FullText FullText_MUG


Autor/innen der Med Uni Graz:
Aberer Felix
Kojzar Harald
Mader Julia
Pieber Thomas
Ribitsch Anja

Dimensions Citations:

Plum Analytics:
Number of Figures: 2
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The PaQ® insulin delivery system is a simple-to-use patch-on device that provides preset basal rates and bolus insulin on demand. In addition to feasibility of use, safety, and efficacy (reported elsewhere), this study analyzed the impact of PaQ on patient-reported outcomes, including barriers to insulin treatment, diabetes-related distress, and attitudes toward insulin therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes on a stable multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen. This single-center, open-label, single-arm study comprised three 2-week periods: baseline (MDI), transition from MDI to PaQ, and PaQ treatment. Validated questionnaires were administered during the baseline and PaQ treatment periods: Barriers to Insulin Treatment questionnaire (BIT), Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale (ITAS), and Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID). Eighteen patients (age 59 ± 5 years, diabetes duration 15 ± 7 years, 21% female, HbA1c 7.7 ± 0.7%) completed the questionnaires. There was a strong, significant effect of PaQ use in mean BIT total scores (difference [D] = -5.4 ± 0.7.7, P = .01, effect size [d] = 0.70). Patients perceived less stigmatization by insulin injection (D = -2.2 ± 6.2, P = .18, d = 0.35), increased positive outcome (D = 1.9 ± 6.6, P = .17, d = 0.29), and less fear of injections (1.3 ± 4.8, P = .55, d = 0.28). Mean change in ITAS scores after PaQ device use showed a nonsignificant improvement of 1.71 ± 5.63 but moderate effect size (d = 0.30, P = .14). No increase in PAID scores was seen. The results and moderate to large effects sizes suggest that PaQ device use has beneficial and clinically relevant effects to overcoming barriers to and negative appraisal of insulin treatment, without increasing other diabetes-related distress. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.
Find related publications in this database (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Adult -
Aged -
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 - drug therapy
Female -
Glycated Hemoglobin A - analysis
Humans -
Hypoglycemic Agents - administration & dosage
Hypoglycemic Agents - therapeutic use
Insulin - administration & dosage
Insulin - therapeutic use
Insulin Infusion Systems -
Male -
Middle Aged -
Patient Satisfaction -
Pilot Projects -
Surveys and Questionnaires -
Transdermal Patch -
Treatment Outcome -

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