Medizinische Universität Graz Austria/Österreich - Forschungsportal - Medical University of Graz

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SHR Neuro Krebs Kardio Lipid

Groschner, LN; Alam, MR; Graier, WF.
Metabolism-Secretion Coupling and Mitochondrial Calcium Activities in Clonal Pancreatic β-Cells.
Vitam Horm. 2014; 95:63-86
Web of Science PubMed FullText FullText_MUG

 

Autor/innen der Med Uni Graz:
Alam Muhammad Rizwan
Graier Wolfgang
Groschner Lukas
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Abstract:
Pancreatic β-cells are the only cells capable of lowering blood glucose by secreting insulin. The β-cell continuously adjusts its secretory activity to substrate availability in order to keep blood glucose levels within the physiological range-a process called metabolism-secretion coupling. Glucose is readily taken up by the β-cell and broken down into intermediates that fuel oxidative metabolism inside the mitochondria to generate ATP. The resulting increase in the ATP/ADP ratio causes closure of plasma membrane KATP channels, thereby depolarizing the cell and triggering the opening of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Consequential oscillations of cytosolic Ca(2+) not only mediate the exocytosis of insulin granules but are also relayed to other subcellular compartments including the mitochondria, where Ca(2+) is required to accelerate mitochondrial metabolism in response to nutrient stimulation. The mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake machinery plays a fundamental role in this feed-forward mechanism that guarantees sustained insulin secretion and, thus, represents a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.

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