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Bölte, S; Neufeld, J; Marschik, PB; Williams, ZJ; Gallagher, L; Lai, MC.
Sex and gender in neurodevelopmental conditions.
Nat Rev Neurol. 2023; 19(3):136-159 Doi: 10.1038/s41582-023-00774-6 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Co-Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Marschik Peter

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Health-related conditions often differ qualitatively or quantitatively between individuals of different birth-assigned sexes and gender identities, and/or with different gendered experiences, requiring tailored care. Studying the moderating and mediating effects of sex-related and gender-related factors on impairment, disability, wellbeing and health is of paramount importance especially for neurodivergent individuals, who are diagnosed with neurodevelopmental conditions with uneven sex/gender distributions. Researchers have become aware of the myriad influences that sex-related and gender-related variables have on the manifestations of neurodevelopmental conditions, and contemporary work has begun to investigate the mechanisms through which these effects are mediated. Here we describe topical concepts of sex and gender science, summarize current knowledge, and discuss research and clinical challenges related to autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and other neurodevelopmental conditions. We consider sex and gender in the context of epidemiology, behavioural phenotypes, neurobiology, genetics, endocrinology and neighbouring disciplines. The available evidence supports the view that sex and gender are important contributors to the biological and behavioural variability in neurodevelopmental conditions. Methodological caveats such as frequent conflation of sex and gender constructs, inappropriate measurement of these constructs and under-representation of specific demographic groups (for example, female and gender minority individuals and people with intellectual disabilities) limit the translational potential of research so far. Future research and clinical implementation should integrate sex and gender into next-generation diagnostics, mechanistic investigations and support practices.
Find related publications in this database (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Male - administration & dosage
Female - administration & dosage
Humans - administration & dosage
Gender Identity - administration & dosage
Neurodevelopmental Disorders - epidemiology, diagnosis
Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity - diagnosis
Intellectual Disability - administration & dosage

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