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Miller, DH; Fazekas, F; Montalban, X; Reingold, SC; Trojano, M.
Pregnancy, sex and hormonal factors in multiple sclerosis.
MULT SCLER J. 2014; 20(5): 527-536. Doi: 10.1177/1352458513519840 [OPEN ACCESS]
Web of Science PubMed PUBMED Central FullText FullText_MUG


Co-Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Fazekas Franz

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Multiple sclerosis (MS) is influenced by pregnancy, sex and hormonal factors. A comprehensive understanding of the role of pregnancy, sex and hormonal factors can provide insights into disease mechanisms, and new therapeutic developments and can provide improved patient care and treatment. Based on an international conference of experts and a comprehensive PubMed search for publications on these areas in MS, we provide a review of what is known about the impact of these factors on disease demographics, etiology, pathophysiology and clinical course and outcomes. Recommendations are provided for counseling and management of people with MS before conception, during pregnancy and after delivery. The use of disease-modifying and symptomatic therapies in pregnancy is problematic and such treatments are normally discontinued. Available knowledge about the impact of treatment on the mother, fetus and newborn is discussed. Recommendations for future research to fill knowledge gaps and clarify inconsistencies in available data are made.
Find related publications in this database (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Age of Onset -
Animals -
Female -
Gonadal Steroid Hormones - metabolism
Humans -
Male -
Multiple Sclerosis - epidemiology Multiple Sclerosis - metabolism Multiple Sclerosis - therapy
Pregnancy -
Pregnancy Complications - epidemiology Pregnancy Complications - metabolism Pregnancy Complications - therapy
Pregnancy Outcome -
Prevalence -
Risk Factors -
Sex Factors -
Time Factors -

Find related publications in this database (Keywords)
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