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Kashofer, K; Viertler, C; Pichler, M; Zatloukal, K.
Quality control of RNA preservation and extraction from paraffin-embedded tissue: implications for RT-PCR and microarray analysis.
PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e70714-e70714 Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070714 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Führende Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Kashofer Karl
Viertler Christian
Zatloukal Kurt
Co-Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Pichler Martin

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Analysis of RNA isolated from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues is widely used in biomedical research and molecular pathological diagnostics. We have performed a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the impact of factors in the pre-analytical workflow, such as different fixatives, fixation time, RNA extraction method and storage of tissues in paraffin blocks, on several downstream reactions including complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and microarray hybridization. We compared the effects of routine formalin fixation with the non-crosslinking, alcohol-based Tissue Tek Xpress Molecular Fixative (TTXMF, Sakura Finetek), and cryopreservation as gold standard for molecular analyses. Formalin fixation introduced major changes into microarray gene expression data and led to marked gene-to-gene variations in delta-ct values of qRT-PCR. We found that qRT-PCR efficiency and gene-to-gene variations were mainly attributed to differences in the efficiency of cDNA synthesis as the most sensitive step. These differences could not be reliably detected by quality assessment of total RNA isolated from formalin-fixed tissues by electrophoresis or spectrophotometry. Although RNA from TTXMF fixed samples was as fragmented as RNA from formalin fixed samples, much higher cDNA yield and lower ct-values were obtained in qRT-PCR underlining the negative impact of crosslinking by formalin. In order to better estimate the impact of pre-analytical procedures such as fixation on the reliability of downstream analysis, we applied a qRT-PCR-based assay using amplicons of different length and an assay measuring the efficiency of cDNA generation. Together these two assays allowed better quality assessment of RNA extracted from fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues and should be used to supplement quality scores derived from automated electrophoresis. A better standardization of the pre-analytical workflow, application of additional quality controls and detailed sample information would markedly improve the comparability and reliability of molecular studies based on formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
Find related publications in this database (using NLM MeSH Indexing)
Cryopreservation - methods
DNA, Complementary - biosynthesis
Formaldehyde - chemistry
Humans -
Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis - methods
Paraffin Embedding - methods
Quality Control -
RNA - analysis
RNA Stability -
Reference Standards -
Reproducibility of Results -
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction - methods
Tissue Fixation - methods

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