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Suljevic, O; Fischerauer, SF; Weinberg, AM; Sommer, NG.
Immunological reaction to magnesium-based implants for orthopedic applications. What do we know so far? A systematic review on in vivo studies.
Mater Today Bio. 2022; 15: 100315 Doi: 10.1016/j.mtbio.2022.100315 [OPEN ACCESS]
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Führende Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Sommer Nicole
Suljevic Omer
Co-Autor*innen der Med Uni Graz
Fischerauer Stefan Franz
Weinberg Annelie-Martina

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Magnesium-based implants (Mg) became an attractive candidate in orthopedic surgery due to their valuable properties, such as osteoconductivity, biodegradability, elasticity and mechanical strength. However, previous studies on biodegradable and non-biodegradable metal implants showed that these materials are not inert when placed in vivo as they interact with host defensive mechanisms. The aim of this study was to systematically review available in vivo studies with Mg-based implants that investigated immunological reactions to these implants. The following questions were raised: Do different types of Mg-based implants in terms of shape, size and alloying system cause different extent of immune response? and; Are there missing links to properly understand immunological reactions upon implantation and degradation of Mg-based implants? The database used for the literature research was PubMed (U.S. National Library of Medicine) and it was undertaken in the end of 2021. The inclusion criteria comprised (i) in vivo studies with bony implantation of Mg-based implants and (ii) analysis of the presence of local immune cells or systemic inflammatory parameters. We further excluded any studies involving coated Mg-implants, in vitro studies, and studies in which the implants had no bone contact. The systematic search process was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines. Initially, the search yielded 225 original articles. After reading each article, and based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 16 articles were included in the systematic review. In the available studies, Mg-based implants were not found to cause any severe inflammatory reaction, and only a mild to moderate inflammatory potential was attributed to the material. The timeline of foreign body giant cell formation showed to be different between the reviewed studies. The variety of degradation kinetics of different tested implants and discrepancies in studies regarding the time points of immunological investigations impair the conclusion of immunological reactions. This may be induced by different physical properties of an implant such as size, shape and alloying system. Further research is essential to elucidate the underlying mechanisms by which implant degradation affects the immune system. Also, better understanding will facilitate the decision of patients whether to undergo surgery with new device implantation.

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